IMR OpenIR
Microstructure and growth mechanism of tin whiskers on RESn3 compounds
C. F. Li; Z. Q. Liu
2013
Source PublicationActa Materialia
ISSN1359-6454
Volume61Issue:2Pages:589-601
AbstractAn exclusive method was developed to prepare intact tin whiskers as transmission electron microscope specimens, and with this technique in situ observation of tin whisker growth from RESn3 (RE = Nd, La, Ce) film specimen was first achieved. Electron irradiation was discovered to have an effect on the growth of a tin whisker through its root. Large quantities of tin whiskers with diameters from 20 nm to 10 mu m and lengths ranging from 50 nm to 500 mu m were formed at a growth rate of 0.1-1.8 am s(-1) on the surface of RESn3 compounds. Most (>85%) of these tin whiskers have preferred growth directions of < 1 0 0 >, < 0 0 1 >, < 1 0 1 > and < 1 0 3 >, as determined by statistics. This kind of tin whisker is single-crystal beta-Sn even if it has growth striations, steps and kinks, and no dislocations or twin or grain boundaries were observed within the whisker body. RESn3 compounds undergo selective oxidation during whisker growth, and the oxidation provides continuous tin atoms for tin whisker growth until they are exhausted. The driving force for whisker growth is the compressive stress resulting from the restriction of the massive volume expansion (38-43%) during the oxidation by the surface RE(OH)(3) layer. Tin atoms diffuse and flow to feed the continuous growth of tin whiskers under a compressive stress gradient formed from the extrusion of tin atoms/clusters at weak points on the surface RE(OH)(3) layers. A growth model was proposed to discuss the characteristics and growth mechanism of tin whiskers from RESn3 compounds. (c) 2012 Acta Materialia Inc. Published by Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.
description.department[li, cai-fu ; liu, zhi-quan] chinese acad sci, shenyang natl lab mat sci, inst met res, shenyang 110016, peoples r china. ; liu, zq (reprint author), chinese acad sci, shenyang natl lab mat sci, inst met res, shenyang 110016, peoples r china. ; zqliu@imr.ac.cn
KeywordIntact Tin Whisker Resn3 Compounds In Situ Transmission Electron Microscopy (Tem) Transmission Electron-microscopy Pb-free Solders Sn-cu Surface Technology Joints Bends
URL查看原文
Language英语
Document Type期刊论文
Identifierhttp://ir.imr.ac.cn/handle/321006/71307
Collection中国科学院金属研究所
Recommended Citation
GB/T 7714
C. F. Li,Z. Q. Liu. Microstructure and growth mechanism of tin whiskers on RESn3 compounds[J]. Acta Materialia,2013,61(2):589-601.
APA C. F. Li,&Z. Q. Liu.(2013).Microstructure and growth mechanism of tin whiskers on RESn3 compounds.Acta Materialia,61(2),589-601.
MLA C. F. Li,et al."Microstructure and growth mechanism of tin whiskers on RESn3 compounds".Acta Materialia 61.2(2013):589-601.
Files in This Item:
There are no files associated with this item.
Related Services
Recommend this item
Bookmark
Usage statistics
Export to Endnote
Google Scholar
Similar articles in Google Scholar
[C. F. Li]'s Articles
[Z. Q. Liu]'s Articles
Baidu academic
Similar articles in Baidu academic
[C. F. Li]'s Articles
[Z. Q. Liu]'s Articles
Bing Scholar
Similar articles in Bing Scholar
[C. F. Li]'s Articles
[Z. Q. Liu]'s Articles
Terms of Use
No data!
Social Bookmark/Share
All comments (0)
No comment.
 

Items in the repository are protected by copyright, with all rights reserved, unless otherwise indicated.