An overview of the mathematical structure of the three-dimensional (3D) Ising model is given from the points of view of topology, algebra, and geometry. By analyzing the relationships among transfer matrices of the 3D Ising model, Reidemeister moves in the knot theory, Yang-Baxter and tetrahedron equations, the following facts are illustrated for the 3D Ising model. 1) The complex quaternion basis constructed for the 3D Ising model naturally represents the rotation in a (3+1)-dimensional space-time as a relativistic quantum statistical mechanics model, which is consistent with the 4-fold integrand of the partition function obtained by taking the time average. 2) A unitary transformation with a matrix that is a spin representation in 2(n.l.o)-space corresponds to a rotation in 2n . l . o-space, which serves to smooth all the crossings in the transfer matrices and contributes the non-trivial topological part of the partition function of the 3D Ising model. 3) A tetrahedron relationship would ensure the commutativity of the transfer matrices and the integrability of the 3D Ising model, and its existence is guaranteed by the Jordan algebra and the Jordan-von Neumann-Wigner procedures. 4) The unitary transformation for smoothing the crossings in the transfer matrices changes the wave functions by complex phases phi(x), phi(y), and phi(z). The relationship with quantum field and gauge theories and the physical significance of the weight factors are discussed in detail. The conjectured exact solution is compared with numerical results, and the singularities at/near infinite temperature are inspected. The analyticity in beta = 1/(k(B)T) of both the hard-core and the Ising models has been proved only for beta > 0, not for beta = 0. Thus the high-temperature series cannot serve as a standard for judging a putative exact solution of the 3D Ising model.
chinese acad sci, inst met res, shenyang natl lab mat sci, shenyang 110016, peoples r china.
; zhang, zd (reprint author), chinese acad sci, inst met res, shenyang natl lab mat sci, shenyang 110016, peoples r china.